Structures.hpp 54 KB
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/*
 * @project        The CERN Tape Archive (CTA)
 * @copyright      Copyright(C) 2021 CERN
 * @license        This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
 *                 it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
 *                 the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or
 *                 (at your option) any later version.
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 *
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 *                 This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
 *                 but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
 *                 MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
 *                 GNU General Public License for more details.
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 *
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 *                 You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
 *                 along with this program.  If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
 */
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#pragma once

#include <sstream>
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#include <iomanip>
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#include <algorithm>
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#include <arpa/inet.h>
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#include <endian.h>
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#include <string.h>
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#include <scsi/sg.h>
#include <climits>
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#include <cstdio>
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#include "Constants.hpp"
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#include "common/exception/Exception.hpp"
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namespace castor {
namespace tape {
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namespace SCSI {
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  const unsigned int defaultTimeout=900000; //millisecs
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  /**
   * Maximum number of tape wraps.
   *
   * This is used to determine the maximum size of the response from the REOWP command,
   * which returns 12 bytes per wrap, plus a 4-byte header.
   *
   * LTO-8 has 208 physical wraps. LTO-9 has 280 wraps. This number should be adjusted
   * upwards when the LTO-10 specification is announced.
   */
  const unsigned int maxLTOTapeWraps = 280;

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  /**
   * Structures as defined in the SCSI specifications, and helper functions for them.
   * SPC-4 (SCSI primary commands) can be found at:
   * http://hackipedia.org/Hardware/SCSI/Primary%20Commands/SCSI%20Primary%20Commands%20-%204.pdf
   * 
   * and SSC-3 (SCSI stream commands, i.e. tape drives) at:
   * http://hackipedia.org/Hardware/SCSI/Stream%20Commands/SCSI%20Stream%20Commands%20-%203.pdf
   */
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  namespace Structures {
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    /**
     * Helper template to zero a structure. Small boilerplate reduction.
     * Should not be used with classes with virtual tables! With a zeroed
     * out virtual table pointer, this will be detected soon enough.
     * @param s pointer the struct/class.
     */
    template <typename C>
    void zeroStruct(C * s) {
      memset (s, 0, sizeof(C));
    }
    
    /**
     * Class wrapping around Linux' SG_IO struct, providing
     * zeroing and automatic filling up for the mandatory structures
     * (cdb, databuffer, sense buffer, magic 'S', and default timeout).
     * Make it look like a bare sg_io_hdr_t when using & operator.
     * Another little boilerplate killer.
     */
    class LinuxSGIO_t: public sg_io_hdr_t {
    public:
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      LinuxSGIO_t() { zeroStruct(this); interface_id = 'S'; timeout = defaultTimeout; }
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      template <typename T>
      void setCDB(T * cdb) { cmdp = (unsigned char *)cdb; cmd_len = sizeof(T); }
      
      template <typename T>
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      void setSenseBuffer(T * senseBuff)  
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      { 
        if (sizeof(T) > UCHAR_MAX)
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          throw cta::exception::Exception("sense structure too big in LinuxSGIO_t::setSense");
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        mx_sb_len = (unsigned char) sizeof(T);
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        sbp = (unsigned char *)senseBuff;
      }
      
      template <typename T>
      void setDataBuffer(T * dataBuff) { dxferp = dataBuff; dxfer_len = sizeof (T); }
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      // If dataBuff is a pointer to a variable length array, sizeof will return
      // the size of one element. This function allows to manually set the buffer size
      template <typename T>
      void setDataBuffer(T * dataBuff, unsigned int dataBuffSize)
      {
        dxferp = dataBuff;
        dxfer_len = dataBuffSize;
      }

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      sg_io_hdr_t * operator & () { return (sg_io_hdr_t *) this; }
    };
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    /**
     * Helper function to deal with endianness.
     * @param t byte array in SCSI order representing a 64 bits number
     * @return 
     */
    inline uint64_t toU64(const unsigned char(& t)[8])
    {
      /* Like network, SCSI is BigEndian */
      return (uint64_t) ntohl ( (*(uint64_t *) t << 32) >> 32)  << 32 | ntohl(*(uint64_t *) t >>32);
    }  
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    /**
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     * Helper function to deal with endianness: 6-byte version
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     *
     * The REOWP SCSI command assigns 48 bits to store the LOGICAL OBJECT IDENTIFIER (although other
     * commands use 64 bits or sometimes 32 bits). This function converts the 48-bit byte array
     * into a 64-bit unsigned integer.
     *
     * @param t byte array in SCSI order representing a 48-bit number
     * @return 64-bit unsigned integer
     */
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    inline uint64_t toU64(const unsigned char(& t)[6])
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    {
      /* Like network, SCSI is BigEndian */
      return (uint64_t) ntohl ( (*(uint64_t *) t << 32) >> 16)  << 32 | ntohl(*(uint64_t *) t >>16);
    }

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    /**
     * Helper function to deal with endianness.
     * @param t byte array in SCSI order representing a 32 bits number
     * @return 
     */
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    inline uint32_t toU32(const unsigned char(& t)[4])
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    {
      /* Like network, SCSI is BigEndian */
      return ntohl (*((uint32_t *) t));
    }

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     /**
     * Helper function to deal with endianness.
     * for 3 bytes! fields in SCSI replies 
     * @param t byte array in SCSI order representing a 32 bits number
     * @return 
     */
    inline uint32_t toU32(const unsigned char(& t)[3])
    {
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      union {
	unsigned char tmp[4];
	uint32_t val;
      } u;
      u.tmp[0]=0;u.tmp[1]=t[0];u.tmp[2]=t[1];u.tmp[3]=t[2];
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      /* Like network, SCSI is BigEndian */
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      return ntohl (u.val);
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    }
    
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     /**
     * Helper function to deal with endianness.
     * for signed values
     * @param t byte array in SCSI order representing a 32 bits number
     * @return 
     */
    inline int32_t toS32(const unsigned char(& t)[4])
    {
      /* Like network, SCSI is BigEndian */
      return (int32_t)(ntohl (*((uint32_t *) t)));
    }
    
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    /**
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     * Helper function to deal with endianness.
     * @param t byte array in SCSI order representing a 16 bits number
     * @return 
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     */
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    inline uint16_t toU16(const unsigned char(& t)[2])
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    {
      /* Like network, SCSI is BigEndian */
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      return ntohs (*((uint16_t *) t));
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    }
    
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    /**
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     * Helper function setting in place a 32 bits SCSI number from a value
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     * expressed in the local endianness.
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     * @param t pointer to the char array at the 32 bits value position.
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     * @param val the value.
     */
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    inline void setU32(unsigned char(& t)[4], uint32_t val) {
      *((uint32_t *) t) = htonl(val);
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    }
    
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    /**
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     * Helper function setting in place a 16 bits SCSI number from a value
     * expressed in the local endianness.
     * @param t pointer to the char array at the 16 bits value position.
     * @param val the value.
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     */
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    inline void setU16(unsigned char(& t)[2], uint16_t val) {
      *((uint16_t *) t) = htons(val);
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    }
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    /**
     * Helper function setting in place a 64 bits SCSI number from a value
     * expressed in the local endianness.
     * @param t pointer to the char array at the 64 bits value position.
     * @param val the value.
     */
    inline void setU64(unsigned char(& t)[8], uint64_t val) {
        *((uint64_t *) t) = htobe64(val);
    }
    
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    /**
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     * Inquiry CDB as described in SPC-4.
     */
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    class inquiryCDB_t {
    public:
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      inquiryCDB_t() { zeroStruct(this); opCode = SCSI::Commands::INQUIRY; }
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      unsigned char opCode;
      
      unsigned char EVPD : 1;
      unsigned char : 7;
      
      unsigned char pageCode;
      
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      unsigned char allocationLength[2];
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      unsigned char control;
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    };
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    /**
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     * Inquiry data as described in SPC-4.
     */
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    class inquiryData_t {
    public:
      inquiryData_t () { zeroStruct(this); }
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      unsigned char perifDevType : 5;
      unsigned char perifQualifyer : 3;

      unsigned char : 7;
      unsigned char RMB : 1;

      unsigned char version : 8;

      unsigned char respDataFmt : 4;
      unsigned char HiSup : 1;
      unsigned char normACA : 1;
      unsigned char : 2;

      unsigned char addLength : 8;

      unsigned char protect : 1;
      unsigned char : 2;
      unsigned char threePC : 1;
      unsigned char TPGS : 2;
      unsigned char ACC : 1;
      unsigned char SCCS : 1;

      unsigned char addr16 : 1;
      unsigned char : 3;
      unsigned char multiP : 1;
      unsigned char VS1 : 1;
      unsigned char encServ : 1;
      unsigned char : 1;

      unsigned char VS2 : 1;
      unsigned char cmdQue : 1;
      unsigned char : 2;
      unsigned char sync : 1;
      unsigned char wbus16 : 1;
      unsigned char : 2;

      char T10Vendor[8];
      char prodId[16];
      char prodRevLvl[4];
      char vendorSpecific1[20];

      unsigned char IUS : 1;
      unsigned char QAS : 1;
      unsigned char clocking : 2;
      unsigned char : 4;

      unsigned char reserved1;

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      unsigned char versionDescriptor[8][2];
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      unsigned char reserved2[22];
      unsigned char vendorSpecific2[1];
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    };
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   /**
    * Oracle T10K Inquiry data
    */
    class inquiryDataT10k_t {
    public:
      inquiryDataT10k_t () { zeroStruct(this); }
      unsigned char perifDevType : 5;
      unsigned char perifQualifyer : 3;

      unsigned char : 7;
      unsigned char RMB : 1;

      unsigned char version;

      unsigned char respDataFmt : 4;
      unsigned char HiSup : 1;
      unsigned char normACA : 1;
      unsigned char RSVD1: 1;
      unsigned char AERC: 1;

      unsigned char addLength;

      unsigned char protect : 1;
      unsigned char : 2;
      unsigned char threePC : 1;
      unsigned char TPGS : 2;
      unsigned char ACC : 1;
      unsigned char SCCS : 1;

      unsigned char : 3;
      unsigned char mChngr: 1;
      unsigned char multiP : 1;
      unsigned char VS1 : 1;
      unsigned char encServ : 1;
      unsigned char bQue : 1;

      unsigned char VS2 : 1;
      unsigned char cmdQue : 1;
      unsigned char RSVD2: 1;
      unsigned char linked: 1;
      unsigned char : 3;
      unsigned char relAdr : 1;

      char vendorId[8];
      char prodId[16];
      char prodRevLvl[8];
      char vendorSpecific1[14];

      unsigned char keyMgmt;

      unsigned char CSL : 1;
      unsigned char DCMP : 1;
      unsigned char volSafe : 1;
      unsigned char libAtt : 1;
      unsigned char encr : 1;
      unsigned char : 3;

      unsigned char reserved1[2];

      unsigned char versionDescriptor[8][2];
    };
 
   /**
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     * Inquiry unit serial number vital product data as described in SPC-4.
     */
    class inquiryUnitSerialNumberData_t {
    public:
      inquiryUnitSerialNumberData_t() { zeroStruct(this); }
      // byte 0
      unsigned char peripheralDeviceType: 5; // (000b) connected to this LUN
      unsigned char peripheralQualifier : 3; // (01h) tape drive  
      
      // byte 1
      unsigned char pageCode;                // (80h) Vital Product Data page for serial
      
      // byte 2
      unsigned char :8;                      // Reserved
      
      // byte 3
      unsigned char pageLength;              // n-3
      
      // bytes 4-n
      char productSerialNumber[12];          // 12 bytes for T10000&IBM, 10 for LTO
    };
    
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    /**
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     * LOCATE(10) CDB as described in SSC-3.
     */
    class locate10CDB_t {
    public:
      locate10CDB_t() {
        zeroStruct(this);
        opCode = SCSI::Commands::LOCATE_10; 
      }
      // byte 0
      unsigned char opCode;                // OPERATION CODE (2Bh)
      
      // byte 1
      unsigned char IMMED : 1;             // Immediate 
      unsigned char CP    : 1;             // Change Partition
      unsigned char BT    : 1;             // Block address Type
      unsigned char       : 5;             // Reserved
      
      // byte 2
      unsigned char       : 8;             // Reserved
      
      // bytes 3-6
      unsigned char logicalObjectID[4] ;   // Logical object identifier or block address
            
      // byte 7
      unsigned char        :8;             // Reserved
      
      // byte 8
      unsigned char partition;             // Partition
            
      // byte 9
      unsigned char control;               // Control byte
    };
    
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    /**
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     * READ POSITION CDB as described in SSC-3.
     */
    class readPositionCDB_t {
    public:
      readPositionCDB_t() {
        zeroStruct(this);
        opCode = SCSI::Commands::READ_POSITION; 
      }
      // byte 0
      unsigned char opCode;                // OPERATION CODE (34h)
      
      // byte 1 
      // *note* for T10000 we have BT:1, LONG:1, TCLP:1, Reserved:5
      unsigned char serviceAction: 5;      // Service action to choice FORM
      unsigned char              : 3;      // Reserved
      
      // bytes 2-6
      unsigned char reserved[5];           // Reserved
      
      // bytes 7-8 
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      unsigned char allocationLength[2] ;  // used for EXTENDENT FORM
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      // byte 9
      unsigned char control;               // Control byte
    };
    
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    /**
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     * READ POSITION  data format, short form as described in SSC-3.
     */
    class readPositionDataShortForm_t {
    public:
      readPositionDataShortForm_t() { zeroStruct(this); }
      // byte 0
      unsigned char BPEW :1;                // Beyond Programmable Early Warning
      unsigned char PERR :1;                // Position ERroR
      unsigned char LOLU :1;                // Logical Object Location Unknown or Block Position Unknown(BPU) for T10000 
      unsigned char      :1;                // Reserved
      unsigned char BYCU :1;                // BYte Count Unknown 
      unsigned char LOCU :1;                // Logical Object Count Unknown or Block Count Unknown(BCU) for T10000 
      unsigned char EOP  :1;                // End Of Partition
      unsigned char BOP  :1;                // Beginning of Partition
      
      // byte 1 
      unsigned char partitionNumber;        // Service action to choice FORM
      
      // bytes 2-3
      unsigned char reserved[2];            // Reserved
      
      // bytes 4-7 
      unsigned char firstBlockLocation[4];  // First Logical object location in SSC3,IBM,LTO
      
      // bytes 8-11
      unsigned char lastBlockLocation[4];   // Last Logical object location in SSC3,IBM,LTO 
      
      // byte 12
      unsigned char    :8;                  // Reserved
      
      // bytes 13-15
      unsigned char blocksInBuffer[3];      // Number of logical objects in object buffer 
      
      // bytes 16-19
      unsigned char bytesInBuffer[4];       // Number if bytes in object buffer
    };
    
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    /**
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     * LOG SELECT CDB as described in SPC-4.
     */
    class logSelectCDB_t {
    public:
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      logSelectCDB_t() {
        zeroStruct(this);
        opCode = SCSI::Commands::LOG_SELECT; 
      }
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      // byte 0
      unsigned char opCode;                // OPERATION CODE (4Ch)
      
      // byte 1
      unsigned char SP : 1;                // the Save Parameters
      unsigned char PCR: 1;                // the Parameter Code Reset
      unsigned char    : 6;                // Reserved 
      
      // byte 2
      unsigned char pageCode: 6;           // PAGE CODE
      unsigned char PC: 2;                 // the Page Control
      
      // byte 3
      unsigned char subPageCode;           // SUBPAGE CODE (Reserved for T10000)
      
      // bytes 4-6
      unsigned char reserved[3];           // Reserved
      
      // bytes 7-8
      unsigned char parameterListLength[2];// PARAMETER LIST LENGTH
      
      // byte 9
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      unsigned char control;               // CONTROL
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    };
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    /**
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     * Log sense CDB as described in SPC-4, 
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     */
    class logSenseCDB_t {
    public:
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      logSenseCDB_t() { zeroStruct(this); opCode = SCSI::Commands::LOG_SENSE; }
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      unsigned char opCode;
      
      unsigned char SP : 1;
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      unsigned char PPC: 1;
      unsigned char :6;
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      unsigned char pageCode : 6;
      unsigned char PC : 2;
      
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      unsigned char subPageCode;
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      unsigned char reserved;
      
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      unsigned char parameterPointer[2];
      
      unsigned char allocationLength[2];
      
      unsigned char control;
    };
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    /**
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     * Log sense Log Page Parameter Format as described in SPC-4, 
     */
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    class logSenseParameterHeader_t  {
    public:
      // bytes 0-1
      unsigned char parameterCode [2];
      
      // byte 2
      unsigned char formatAndLinking : 2; // reserved and List Parameter bits
      unsigned char TMC : 2;              // Threshold Met Criteria
      unsigned char ETC : 1;              // Enable Threshold Comparison
      unsigned char TSD : 1;              // Target Save Disable
      unsigned char : 1;                  // DS Disable Save for T10000
      unsigned char DU : 1;               // Disable Update 
      
      // byte 3
      unsigned char parameterLength;      // n-3          
    };
    
    class logSenseParameter_t {
    public:
      // bytes 0-3
      logSenseParameterHeader_t header;
           
      // bytes 4-n
      unsigned char parameterValue[1];     // parameters have variable length 
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      /**
       * Gets the parameter value
       * 
       * @return The value  of the log sense parameter as uint64_t.
       *         If we have a parameter length more than 8 bytes the returning
       *         value is not determined. 
       */
      inline uint64_t getU64Value()  {
        union {
          unsigned char tmp[8];
          uint64_t val64;
        } u;
        
        u.tmp[0]=(header.parameterLength>0)?parameterValue[0]:0;
        u.tmp[1]=(header.parameterLength>1)?parameterValue[1]:0;
        u.tmp[2]=(header.parameterLength>2)?parameterValue[2]:0;
        u.tmp[3]=(header.parameterLength>3)?parameterValue[3]:0;
        u.tmp[4]=(header.parameterLength>4)?parameterValue[4]:0;
        u.tmp[5]=(header.parameterLength>5)?parameterValue[5]:0;
        u.tmp[6]=(header.parameterLength>6)?parameterValue[6]:0;
        u.tmp[7]=(header.parameterLength>7)?parameterValue[7]:0;

        u.val64 = be64toh(u.val64);
     
        return u.val64>>(64-(header.parameterLength<<3));     
      }
      
      /**
       * Gets the parameter value.
       * 
       * @return The value  of the log sense parameter as int64_t.
       *         If we have a parameter length more than 8 bytes the returning
       *         value is not determined. 
       */
      inline int64_t getS64Value()  {
        union {
          unsigned char tmp[8];
          uint64_t val64U;
          int64_t  val64S;
        } u;
        
        u.tmp[0]=(header.parameterLength>0)?parameterValue[0]:0;
        u.tmp[1]=(header.parameterLength>1)?parameterValue[1]:0;
        u.tmp[2]=(header.parameterLength>2)?parameterValue[2]:0;
        u.tmp[3]=(header.parameterLength>3)?parameterValue[3]:0;
        u.tmp[4]=(header.parameterLength>4)?parameterValue[4]:0;
        u.tmp[5]=(header.parameterLength>5)?parameterValue[5]:0;
        u.tmp[6]=(header.parameterLength>6)?parameterValue[6]:0;
        u.tmp[7]=(header.parameterLength>7)?parameterValue[7]:0;
      
        u.val64U = be64toh(u.val64U);
        
        return  (u.val64S < 0?-(-u.val64S>> (64-(header.parameterLength<<3))):
          (u.val64S>>(64-(header.parameterLength<<3))));     
      }  
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    };
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    /**
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     * Log sense Log Page Format as described in SPC-4, 
     */
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    class logSenseLogPageHeader_t {
    public:
      // byte 0
      unsigned char pageCode : 6;
      unsigned char SPF: 1;          // the Subpage format
      unsigned char DS: 1;           // the Disable Slave bit
      
      // byte 1
      unsigned char subPageCode;
      
      // bytes 2-3
      unsigned char pageLength[2];   // n-3 number of bytes without header   
    };
    /**
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     * Log sense Log Page Format as described in SPC-4, 
     */
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    class logSenseLogPage_t {
    public:
      // bytes 0-3
      logSenseLogPageHeader_t header;
      
      // bytes 4-n      
      logSenseParameter_t parameters [1]; // parameters have variable length
    };
    
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    /**
     * MODE SENSE(6) CDB as described in SPC-4.
     */
    class modeSense6CDB_t {
    public:
      modeSense6CDB_t() {
        zeroStruct(this);
        opCode = SCSI::Commands::MODE_SENSE_6; 
      }
      // byte 0
      unsigned char opCode;           // OPERATION CODE (1Ah)
      
      // byte 1 
      unsigned char     : 3;          // Reserved
      unsigned char DBD : 1;          // Disable Block Descriptors
      unsigned char     : 4;          // Reserved  
      
      // byte 2
      unsigned char pageCode : 6;     // Page code
      unsigned char PC       : 2;     // Page Control
            
      // byte3  
      unsigned char subPageCode ;     // Subpage code
      
      // byte4  
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      unsigned char allocationLength; // The maximum number of bytes to be transferred
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      // byte 5
      unsigned char control;          // Control byte
    };
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    /**
     * MODE SENSE(6) MODE SELECT(6) parameter header as described in SPC-4.
     */
    class modeParameterHeader6_t {
    public:
      // byte 0
      unsigned char modeDataLength;   // The mode data length does not include itself 
      
      // byte 1 
      unsigned char mediumType;       // The medium type in the drive
      
      // byte 2
      /* in SPC-4 we have device-specific parameter byte here
       * but from all drive specifications the fields are the same
       * so we use them here.
       */
      unsigned char speed        : 4; // Read/write speed
      unsigned char bufferedMode : 3; // Returns after data is in the buffer or on the medium
      unsigned char WP           : 1; // Write Protect
            
      // byte3  
      unsigned char blockDescriptorLength ; //  (08h) or (00h)
    };
    
    /**
     * MODE SENSE(6,10) and MODE SELECT(6,10) block descriptor as described in SPC-4.
     */
    class modeParameterBlockDecriptor_t {
    public:
      // byte 0
      unsigned char densityCode;       // Density code
      
      // bytes 1-3 
      unsigned char numberOfBlocks[3]; // Number of block or block count
      
      // byte 4
      unsigned char : 8;               // Reserved
                 
      // bytes 5-7 
      unsigned char blockLength[3] ;   //  Block length
    };
    
    /**
     * MODE SENSE(6) or MODE SENSE(10) mode page 10h: Device Configuration.
     * There is no description in SPC-4 or SSC-3.
     * We use descriptions from: 
     * IBM System Storage Tape Drive 3592 SCSI Reference,
     * Sun StorageTekTM T10000 Tape Drive Fibre Channel Interface Reference Manual,
     * IBM TotalStorage LTO Ultrium Tape Drive SCSI Reference.
    */
    class modePageDeviceConfiguration_t {
    public:
      // byte 0
      unsigned char pageCode :6;          // Page code (10h)
      unsigned char SPF      :1;          // SubPage Format (0b)
      unsigned char PS       :1;          // Parameters Savable
      
      // byte 1 
      unsigned char pageLength;           // (0Eh)
      
      // byte 2
      unsigned char activeFormat : 5;     // Active Format
      unsigned char CAF          : 1;     // Change Active Format 
      unsigned char CAP          : 1;     // Change Active Partition 
      unsigned char              : 1;     // Reserved
                 
      // byte 3
      unsigned char activePartition ;     //  Active Partition
      
      // byte 4
      unsigned char writeBufferFullRatio; // Write object buffer full ratio
      
      // byte 5
      unsigned char readBufferEmptyRatio; // Read object buffer empty ratio
      
      // bytes 6-7
      unsigned char writeDelayTime[2];    // Write delay time in 100ms for IBM, LTO and in sec for T1000
      
      // byte 8
      unsigned char REW : 1;  // Report Early Warning
      unsigned char RBO : 1;  // Recover Buffer Order
      unsigned char SOCF: 2;  // Stop On Consecutive Filemarks
      unsigned char AVC : 1;  // Automatic Velocity Control
      unsigned char RSMK : 1; // Report SetMarKs (obsolete for IBM,LTO)
      unsigned char LOIS : 1; // Logical Object ID Supported or Block IDs Supported for T10000
      unsigned char OBR  : 1; // Object Buffer Recovery or Data Buffer Recovery for T10000
      
      // byte 9
      unsigned char gapSize;  // Obsolete for IBM, LTO
      
      // byte 10
      unsigned char BAM : 1;  // Block Address Mode or reserved for T10000
      unsigned char BAML: 1;  // Block Address Mode Lock or reserved for T10000
      unsigned char SWP : 1;  // Soft Write Protect
      unsigned char SEW : 1;  // Synchronize at Early Warning 
      unsigned char EEG : 1;  // EOD Enabled Generation
      unsigned char eodDefined :3; // End Of Data
      
      // bytes 11-13
      unsigned char bufSizeAtEarlyWarning[3]; // Object buffer size at early warning
      
      // byte 14
      unsigned char selectDataComprAlgorithm; // Select data compression algorithm
      
      // byte 15
      unsigned char PRMWP  : 1;        // PeRManent Write Protect
      unsigned char PERSWP : 1;        // PERSistent Write Protect
      unsigned char ASOCWP : 1;        // ASsOCiated Write Protect
      unsigned char rewindOnReset : 2; // Reserved for T10000
      unsigned char OIR  : 1;          // Only If Reserved  or reserved for T10000
      unsigned char WTRE : 2;          // WORM Tamper Read Enable
    };
    
    class modeSenseDeviceConfiguration_t {
    public:
      modeSenseDeviceConfiguration_t() { zeroStruct(this); }
      modeParameterHeader6_t header;
      modeParameterBlockDecriptor_t blockDescriptor;
      modePageDeviceConfiguration_t modePage;
    };
    
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    /**
     * MODE SENSE(6) or MODE SENSE(10) mode page 0Ah: Control Data Protection.
     * as described in SSC-5.
     */
    class modePageControlDataProtection_t {
    public:
      // byte 0
      unsigned char pageCode :6;       // Page code (0Ah)
      unsigned char SPF      :1;       // SubPage Format (1b)
      unsigned char PS       :1;       // Parameters Savable 
                                       // 0b required for MODE SELECT IBM,LTO
                                       // 1b returned in MODE SENSE IBM, LTO
                                       // 0b Not supported for T10000
      
      // byte 1 
      unsigned char subpageCode;       // SubPage code (F0h)  
      
      // bytes 2-3
      unsigned char pageLength[2];     // Page length (n - 3) 1Ch for IBM,LTO
      
      // byte 4
      unsigned char LBPMethod;         // LBP method
      
      // byte 5
      unsigned char LBPInformationLength : 6; // LBP information length 
      unsigned char                      : 2; // Reserved
      
      // byte 6
      unsigned char : 5;               // Reserved
      unsigned char RBDP : 1;          // Recover Buffered Data Protected
      unsigned char LBP_R : 1;         // Logical blocks protected during read
      unsigned char LBP_W : 1;         // Logical blocks protected during write
      
      // byte 7
      unsigned char : 4;               // Reserved
      unsigned char T10PIexponent : 4; // T1000 only for T10 PI mode
      
      // bytes 8-31
      unsigned char reserved[24];      // Reserved. Added for IBM, LTO and do  
                                       // not used by T10000
    };
  
    /**
     * MODE SENSE(6) structure for mode page 0Ah: Control Data Protection.
     * as described in SSC-5.
     */
    class modeSenseControlDataProtection_t {
    public:
      modeSenseControlDataProtection_t() { zeroStruct(this); }
      modeParameterHeader6_t header;
      modeParameterBlockDecriptor_t blockDescriptor;
      modePageControlDataProtection_t modePage;
    };    
    
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     /**
     * MODE SELECT(6) CDB as described in SPC-4.
     */
    class modeSelect6CDB_t {
    public:
      modeSelect6CDB_t() {
        zeroStruct(this);
        opCode = SCSI::Commands::MODE_SELECT_6; 
      }
      // byte 0
      unsigned char opCode;          // OPERATION CODE (15h)
      
      // byte 1 
      unsigned char SP : 1;          // Save Parameters
      unsigned char    : 3;          // Reserved
      unsigned char PF : 1;          // Page Format
      unsigned char    : 3;          // Reserved
      
      // bytes 2-3
      unsigned char reserved[2];     // Reserved
                  
      // byte 4
      unsigned char paramListLength; // Parameter list length
            
      // byte 5
      unsigned char control;         // Control byte
    };
    
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    /**
     * TEST UNIT READY as described in SPC-4.
     */
    class testUnitReadyCDB_t {
    public:
      testUnitReadyCDB_t() {
        zeroStruct(this);
        opCode = SCSI::Commands::TEST_UNIT_READY; 
      }
      // byte 0
      unsigned char opCode;       // OPERATION CODE (00h)
      
      // byte 1 
      unsigned char      : 8;     // Reserved
            
      // byte 2
      unsigned char EDCC : 1;     // Enable Deferred CHECK CONDITION (IBM only)
      unsigned char      : 7;     // Reserved
            
      // byte 3-4  
      unsigned char reserverd[2]; // Reserved
            
      // byte 5
      unsigned char control;      // Control byte
    };
    
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    /**
     * Part of a tape alert log page.
     * This structure does not need to be initialized, as the containing structure
     * (tapeAlertLogPage_t) will do it while initializing itself.
     */
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    class tapeAlertLogParameter_t {
    public:
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      unsigned char parameterCode [2];
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      unsigned char formatAndLinking : 2;
      unsigned char TMC : 2;
      unsigned char ETC : 1;
      unsigned char TSD : 1;
      unsigned char : 1;
      unsigned char DU : 1;
      
      unsigned char parameterLength;
      
      unsigned char flag : 1;
      unsigned char : 7;
    };
    
    /**
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     * Tape alert log page, returned by LOG SENSE. Defined in SSC-3, section 8.2.3 TapeAler log page.
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     */
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    template <int n>
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    class tapeAlertLogPage_t {
    public:
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      tapeAlertLogPage_t() { zeroStruct(this); }
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      unsigned char pageCode : 6;
      unsigned char : 2;
      
      unsigned char subPageCode;
      
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      unsigned char pageLength[2];
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      tapeAlertLogParameter_t parameters [n];
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      /**
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       * Utility function computing the number of parameters. This converts a
       * length in bytes (as found in the struct) in a parameter count.
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       * @return number of parameters.
       */
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      unsigned int parameterNumber()  {
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        unsigned int numFromLength = SCSI::Structures::toU16(pageLength) / sizeof (tapeAlertLogParameter_t);
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        return numFromLength;
      }
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    };
    
    /**
     * Sense buffer as defined in SPC-4, 
     * section 4.5.2 Descriptor format sense data and 
     * section 4.5.3 Fixed format sense data
     * The sense buffer size is stored in the form of
     * a single byte. Therefore, the constructor forbids
     * creation of a senseData_t structure bigger than
     * 255 bytes.
     * As the structure will be different depending on the response code,
     * everything after the first byte is represented by a union, which
     * can be any of the 2 forms (fixedFormat/descriptorFormat).
     * getXXXXX helper member function allow the getting of on of the other
     * version of the common fields.
     */
    template <int n>
    class senseData_t {
    public:
      senseData_t() {
        if (sizeof(*this) > 255)
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          throw cta::exception::Exception("In SCSI::Structures::senseData_t::senseData_t(): size too big (> 255>");      
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        zeroStruct(this);
      }
      // byte 0
      unsigned char responseCode: 7;
      unsigned char : 1;
      // Following bytes can take 2 versions:
      union {
       struct {
          // byte 1
          unsigned char senseKey : 4;
          unsigned char : 4;
          // Additional sense code (byte 2))
          unsigned char ASC;
          // Additional sense code qualifier (byte 3)
          unsigned char ASCQ;
          // byte 4
          unsigned char : 7;
          unsigned char SDAT_OVFL : 1;
          // byte 5-6
          unsigned char reserved[2];
          // byte 7
          unsigned char additionalSenseLength;
          // byte 8 onwards
          unsigned char additionalSenseBuffer[n - 8];
       } descriptorFormat;
       struct {
         // byte 1
         unsigned char obsolete;
         // byte 2
         unsigned char senseKey : 4;
         unsigned char SDAT_OVFL : 1;
         unsigned char ILI : 1;
         unsigned char EOM : 1;
         unsigned char filemark : 1;
         // bytes 3-6
         unsigned char information[4];
         // byte 7
         unsigned char additionalSenseLength;
         // bytes 8 - 11
         unsigned char commandSpecificInformation[4];
         // Additional sense code (byte 12))
         unsigned char ASC;
         // Additional sense code qualifier (byte 13)
         unsigned char ASCQ;
         // bytes 14
         unsigned char fieldReplaceableUnitCode;
         // bytes 15-17
          unsigned char senseSpecificInformation[3];
          // bytes 18 onwards
          unsigned char aditionalSenseBuffer[n - 18];
        } fixedFormat;
        // Helper functions for common fields
        // First make the difference between the fixed/descriptor
        // and current/deffered
      };
      bool isFixedFormat() {
        return responseCode == 0x70 || responseCode == 0x71;
      }
      
      bool isDescriptorFormat() {
        return responseCode == 0x72 || responseCode == 0x73;
      }
      
      bool isCurrent() {
        return responseCode == 0x70 || responseCode == 0x72;
      }

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      bool isDeferred() {
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        return responseCode == 0x71 || responseCode == 0x73;
      }

      uint8_t getASC() {
        if (isFixedFormat()) {
          return fixedFormat.ASC;
        } else if (isDescriptorFormat()) {
          return descriptorFormat.ASC;
        } else {
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          std::stringstream err;
          err << "In senseData_t::getASC: no ACS with this response code or response code not supported ("
                  << std::hex << std::showbase << (int)responseCode << ")";
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          throw cta::exception::Exception(err.str());
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        }
      }

      uint8_t getASCQ() {
        if (isFixedFormat()) {
          return fixedFormat.ASCQ;
        } else if (isDescriptorFormat()) {
          return descriptorFormat.ASCQ;
        } else {
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          std::stringstream err;
          err << "In senseData_t::getASCQ: no ACSQ with this response code or response code not supported ("
                  << std::hex << std::showbase << (int)responseCode << ")";
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          throw cta::exception::Exception(err.str());
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        }
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      }
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      /**
       * Returns the Sense Key value.
       */
      unsigned char getSenseKey() {
        if (isFixedFormat()) {
          return fixedFormat.senseKey;
        } else if (isDescriptorFormat()) {
          return descriptorFormat.senseKey;
        } else {
          std::stringstream err;
          err << "In senseData_t::getSenseKey: no Sense Key with this response "
            "code or response code not supported ("
            << std::hex << std::showbase << (int)responseCode << ")";
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        }
      }
      /**
       * Returns the Sense Key value as string.
       */
      std::string getSenseKeyString() {
        if ( castor::tape::SCSI::senseKeys::lastWithText >= getSenseKey()) {
          return castor::tape::SCSI::senseKeys::senseKeysText[getSenseKey()];
        } else {
          std::stringstream err;
          err << "In senseData_t::getSenseKeyString: no Sense Key with this "
            "value ("<< std::hex << std::showbase 
            << (int)getSenseKey() << ")";
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          throw cta::exception::Exception(err.str());
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        }
      }      
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      /**
       * Function turning the ACS/ACSQ contents into a string.
       * This function is taken from the Linux kernel sources.
       * see scsi_extd_sense_format.
       * @return the error string as defined by SCSI specifications.
       */
      std::string getACSString() {
        SCSI::senseConstants sc;
        uint8_t asc = getASC();
        uint8_t ascq = getASCQ();
        uint16_t code = (asc << 8) | ascq;
        for (int i = 0; sc.ascStrings[i].text; i++)
          if (sc.ascStrings[i].code12 == code)
            return std::string(sc.ascStrings[i].text);
        for (int i = 0; sc.ascRangesStrings[i].text; i++)
          if (sc.ascRangesStrings[i].asc == asc &&
                  sc.ascRangesStrings[i].ascq_min <= ascq &&
                  sc.ascRangesStrings[i].ascq_max >= ascq) {
            char buff[100];
            snprintf(buff, sizeof (buff), sc.ascRangesStrings[i].text, ascq);
            return std::string(buff);
          }
        char buff[100];
        snprintf(buff, sizeof (buff), "Unknown ASC/ASCQ:%02x/%02x", asc, ascq);
        return std::string(buff);
      }
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      /* TODO: add support for other bits. See section 4.5.6
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       * of SPC-4 for sense key = NO SENSE. */
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    };
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    /**
     * READ END OF WRAP POSITION CDB as described in LTO-8 SCSI Reference, p.119
     */
    class readEndOfWrapPositionCDB_t {
    public:
      readEndOfWrapPositionCDB_t() {
        zeroStruct(this);
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        // REOWP is a service action of the MAINTENANCE_IN command: A3 1F 45
        opCode = SCSI::Commands::MAINTENANCE_IN;
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        SERVICE_ACTION = 0x1F;
        serviceActionQualifier = 0x45;
      }
      // byte 0
      unsigned char opCode;                    // OPERATION CODE (A3h)

      // byte 1
      unsigned char SERVICE_ACTION :5;         // 1Fh
      unsigned char                :3;

      // byte 2
      unsigned char serviceActionQualifier;    // 45h

      // byte 3
      unsigned char WNV            :1;         // Wrap Number Valid: 0 = request data for first wrap on the tape
                                               //                    1 = return data for wrap in wrapNumber field
      unsigned char RA             :1;         // Report All: 0 = short form reply (return data for a single wrap)
                                               //             1 = long form reply  (return data for all wraps)
      unsigned char                :6;

      // byte 4
      unsigned char reserved1;                 // Reserved

      // byte 5
      unsigned char wrapNumber;                // Wrap for which the end of wrap position is requested.
                                               // If set, WNV must be 1 and RA must be 0.
      // bytes 6-9
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      unsigned char allocationLength[4];       // Maximum number of bytes to be transferred
                                               // In the case of Report All, each wrap descriptor is 12
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                                               // bytes. LTO-9 tapes have 280 wraps, so reply can be up
                                               // to 3084 bytes. And longer in case of LTO-10 (details
                                               // not available at time of writing).
      // byte 10
      unsigned char reserved2;                 // Reserved

      // byte 11
      unsigned char control;                   // Control byte
    };

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    /**
     * REOWP Short form parameter data, as described in LTO-8 SCSI Reference, p.120
     */
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    class readEndOfWrapPositionDataShortForm_t {
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    public:
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      readEndOfWrapPositionDataShortForm_t() { zeroStruct(this); }
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      // bytes 0-1
      unsigned char responseDataLength[2];           // 08h, the number of bytes to follow

      // bytes 2-3
      unsigned char reserved[2];                     // Reserved

      // bytes 4-9
      unsigned char logicalObjectIdentifier[6];      // The logical object identifier of the object at the
                                                     // end of the wrap requested by the WNV bit and the
                                                     // WRAP_NUMBER field
    };

    /**
     * REOWP Long form parameter data, as described in LTO-8 SCSI Reference, p.120-121
     */
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    class readEndOfWrapPositionDataLongForm_t {
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    public:
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      readEndOfWrapPositionDataLongForm_t() { zeroStruct(this); }
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      // bytes 0-1
      unsigned char responseDataLength[2];           // n-1, the number of bytes to follow

      // bytes 2-3
      unsigned char reserved[2];                     // Reserved

      // bytes 4-n
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      struct WrapDescriptor {
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        unsigned char wrapNumber[2];                 // Wrap number
        unsigned char partition[2];                  // The partition number of the above wrap
        unsigned char reserved[2];                   // Reserved
        unsigned char logicalObjectIdentifier[6];    // The logical object identifier of the object at the end of the above wrap
      } wrapDescriptor[maxLTOTapeWraps];             // Array of wrap descriptiors
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      uint16_t getNbWrapsReturned(){
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        return ((SCSI::Structures::toU16(responseDataLength) - sizeof(reserved)) / sizeof(WrapDescriptor));
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      }
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    };
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    /**
     * REQUEST SENSE CDB as described in LTO-8 SCSI Reference, p.157
     */
    class requestSenseCDB_t {
    public:
      requestSenseCDB_t() {
        zeroStruct(this);
        opCode = SCSI::Commands::REQUEST_SENSE;
      }
      // byte 0
      unsigned char opCode;              // OPERATION CODE (03h)

      // bytes 1-3
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      unsigned char reserved[3];         // Reserved
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      // byte 4
      unsigned char allocationLength;    // Maximum number of bytes to be transferred (up to 96), see 5.2.29

      // byte 5
      unsigned char control;             // Control byte
    };

    /**
     * REQUEST SENSE data format, as described in LTO-8 SCSI Reference, p.158
     */
    class requestSenseData_t {
    public:
      requestSenseData_t() { zeroStruct(this); }
      // byte 0
      unsigned char RESPONSE_CODE :7;              // 70h current, 71h deferred
      unsigned char VALID         :1;              // Information bytes 3-6 are valid

      // byte 1
      unsigned char               :8;              // Obsolete

      // byte 2
      unsigned char SENSE_KEY     :4;              // See Annex B
      unsigned char               :1;              // Reserved
      unsigned char ILI           :1;              // Incorrect Length Indicator
      unsigned char EOM           :1;              // Device is at end of medium
      unsigned char FILEMARK      :1;              // The current command has encountered a filemark

      // bytes 3-6
      unsigned char information[4];                // Valid if VALID bit is set. Generally only used for non-deferred errors.

      // byte 7
      unsigned char additionalSenseLength;         // 0Ah only 18 bytes of sense data returned, 58h full 96 bytes of sense data returned

      // bytes 8-11
      unsigned char commandSpecificInformation[4]; // Not supported by LTO-8 drives

      // byte 12
      unsigned char additionalSenseCode;           // See Annex B

      // byte 13
      unsigned char additionalSenseCodeQualifier;  // See Annex B

      // byte 14
      unsigned char fieldReplacableUnitCode;       // Used for extended fault isolation information

      // byte 15
      unsigned char BIT_POINTER   :3;              // Points to bit in error of the field specified by the FIELD_POINTER
      unsigned char BPV           :1;              // Bit Pointer Valid, indicates whether BIT_POINTER contains information
      unsigned char               :2;              // Reserved
      unsigned char C_D           :1;              // Control/Data, indicates if error is in a data field or CDB field
      unsigned char SKSV_BIT      :1;              // Sense Key Specific Valid

      // bytes 16-17
      unsigned char SKSV[2];                       // Field Pointer, points to the CDB byte or parameter byte in error

      // bytes 18-19
      unsigned char reportingErrorFlagData[2];     // Reporting Error Flag Data

      // byte 20
      unsigned char               :8;              // Reserved

      // byte 21
      unsigned char VOLVALID      :1;              // Indicates if Volume Label and Volume Label Cartridge Type contain valid information
      unsigned char DUMP          :1;              // Indicates if a debug dump is present in the drive
      unsigned char               :1;              // Reserved
      unsigned char CLN           :1;              // Is the device requesting a clean?
      unsigned char DRVSRVC       :1;              // Does the drive have a hardware fault causing it to be inoperative?
      unsigned char               :3;              // Reserved

      // bytes 22-28
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      char volumeLabel[7];                         // Seven characters from left of Volume Label
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      // byte 29
      unsigned char physicalWrap;                  // Physical wrap of the current location. LSB reflects current physical direction:
                                                   //    0b - current direction is away from the physical beginning of tape
                                                   //    1b - current direction is towards the physical beginning of tape
                                                   //   FFh - logical wrap number exceeds 254, physical direction is not reflected
      // bytes 30-33
      unsigned char relativeLPOSValue[4];          // The current physical position on tape

      // byte 34
      unsigned char SCSIAddress;                   // Obsolete, use portIdentifier instead

      // byte 35
      unsigned char RS422Information;              // May contain a value passed across the RS-422 serial interface by a tape library

      // byte 36
      unsigned char activePartition :3;            // Partition number of the current logical position of the volume
      unsigned char                 :5;            // Reserved

      // bytes 37-39
      unsigned char portIdentifier[3];             // Address of the port through which the sense is reported, fibre channel or SAS

      // byte 40
      unsigned char relativeTgtPort     :3;        // Relative target port through which sense data is reported
      unsigned char                     :3;        // Reserved
      unsigned char tapePartitionsExist :1;        // Does the mounted volume contain more than one partition?
      unsigned char tapeDirectoryValid  :1;        // Is the tape directory valid?

      // byte 41
      unsigned char hostCommand;                   // SCSI Opcode of the command to which sense data is being returned

      // byte 42
      unsigned char mediaType           :4;        // Vendor reserved
      unsigned char cartridgeGenType    :4;        // Cartridge generation type, 000b = Gen1, 111b = Gen 8

      // bytes 43-44
      unsigned char volumeLabelCartridgeType[2];   // Valid if VOLVALID bit is set to 1b. Can be 'L7', 'M8', 'L8', etc.

      // bytes 45-48
      unsigned char logicalBlockNumber[4];         // Current LBA that would be reported in Read Position command

      // bytes 49-52
      unsigned char datasetNumber[4];

      // bytes 53-54
      unsigned char firstErrorFSC[2];

      // bytes 55-56
      unsigned char firstErrorFlagData[2];

      // bytes 57-58
      unsigned char secondErrorFSC[2];

      // bytes 59-60
      unsigned char secondErrorFlagData[2];

      // bytes 61-62
      unsigned char nextToLastErrorFSC[2];

      // bytes 63-64
      unsigned char nextToLastErrorFlagData[2];

      // bytes 65-66
      unsigned char lastErrorFSC[2];

      // bytes 67-68
      unsigned char lastErrorFlagData[2];

      // byte 69
      unsigned char LPOSRegion;

      // bytes 70-85
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      char ERPSummaryInformation[16];
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      // bytes 86-95
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      char cartridgeSerialNumber[10];    // This is the value from the CRM right-justified, not the Barcode
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    };
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    namespace encryption {

      class spinCDB_t {
      public:
        spinCDB_t() {
          zeroStruct(this);
          opCode = SCSI::Commands::SECURITY_PROTOCOL_IN;
        }

        unsigned char opCode;
        unsigned char securityProtocol;
        unsigned char securityProtocolSpecific[2];
        unsigned char reserved[2];
        unsigned char allocationLength[4];
        unsigned char reserved2;
        unsigned char controlByte;
      };

      class spoutCDB_t {
      public:
        spoutCDB_t() {
          zeroStruct(this);
          opCode = SCSI::Commands::SECURITY_PROTOCOL_OUT;
        }

        unsigned char opCode;
        unsigned char securityProtocol;
        unsigned char securityProtocolSpecific[2];
        unsigned char reserved[2];
        unsigned char allocationLength[4];
        unsigned char reserved2;
        unsigned char controlByte;
      };

      template <int n>
      class spinPageList_t {
      public:
        spinPageList_t() { zeroStruct(this); }
        unsigned char reserved[6];
        unsigned char supportedProtocolListLength[2];
        unsigned char list[n];
      };

      /**
       * Security Protocol OUT-Set Data Encryption Page as described in SSC-4.
       */
      class spoutSDEParam_t {
      public:
        spoutSDEParam_t() {
          zeroStruct(this);
          setU16(pageCode, SCSI::encryption::spoutSecurityProtocolSpecificPages::setDataEncryptionPage);
          setU16(keyLength, SCSI::encryption::ENC_KEY_LENGTH);
        }

        unsigned char pageCode[2];
        unsigned char length[2];

        unsigned char lock        : 1;
        unsigned char             : 4;
        unsigned char nexusScope  : 3; // Specifies the scope of the data encryption parameters

        unsigned char CKORL       : 1; // Clear key on reservation loss
        unsigned char CKORP       : 1; // Clear key on reservation preempt
        unsigned char CKOD        : 1; // Clear key on reservation demount
        unsigned char SDK         : 1; // Supplemental decryption key
        unsigned char RDMC        : 2; // Raw decryption mode control
        unsigned char CEEM        : 2; // Check external encryption mode

        unsigned char encryptionMode;
        unsigned char decryptionMode;
        unsigned char algorithmIndex;
        unsigned char keyFormat;
        unsigned char kadFormat;
        unsigned char reserved[7];
        unsigned char keyLength[2];
        unsigned char keyData[SCSI::encryption::ENC_KEY_LENGTH];
      };
    }

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    namespace RAO {
        
       /**
        * Receive RAO Command Descriptor Block (CDB)
        */
       class recieveRAO_t {
       public:
         recieveRAO_t() {
           zeroStruct(this);
           opcode = SCSI::Commands::MAINTENANCE_IN;
         }
         unsigned char opcode;

         unsigned char serviceAction   :5;
         unsigned char                 :2;
         unsigned char udsLimits       :1;

         unsigned char raoListOffset[4];

         unsigned char allocationLength[4];

         unsigned char udsType         :3;
         unsigned char                 :5;

         unsigned char control;

       };

       /**
        * UDS (User Data Segments) limits page
        */
       class udsLimitsPage_t {
       public:
         udsLimitsPage_t() {
           zeroStruct(this);
         }
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         unsigned char maxSupported[2];
         unsigned char maxSize[2];
       };

       class udsLimits {
       public:
         uint16_t maxSupported;
         uint16_t maxSize;
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       };

       /**
        * Generate RAO CDB
        */
       class generateRAO_t {
       public:
         generateRAO_t() {
           zeroStruct(this);
           opcode = SCSI::Commands::MAINTENANCE_OUT;
           raoProcess = 2;
         }
         unsigned char opcode;

         unsigned char serviceAction   :5;
         unsigned char                 :3;

         unsigned char raoProcess      :3;
         unsigned char                 :5;

         unsigned char udsType         :3;
         unsigned char                 :5;

         unsigned char reserved[2];

         unsigned char paramsListLength[4];

         unsigned char reserved2;

         unsigned char control;

       };

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       class udsDescriptor_t {
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       public:
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         udsDescriptor_t() {
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           zeroStruct(this);
           setU16(descriptorLength, 0x1e);
         }
         unsigned char descriptorLength[2];
         unsigned char reserved[3];
         unsigned char udsName[10];
         unsigned char partitionNumber;
         unsigned char beginLogicalObjID[8];
         unsigned char endLogicalObjID[8];
       };

       /**
        * RAO list struct
        */
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       class raoList_t {
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       public:
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         raoList_t() {
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           zeroStruct(this);
         }
         unsigned char raoProcess      :3;
         unsigned char                 :5;

         unsigned char status          :3;
         unsigned char                 :5;

         unsigned char res[2];

         unsigned char raoDescriptorListLength[4];

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       };

       /**
        * Generate RAO parameters
        */
       class generateRAOParams_t {
       public:
         generateRAOParams_t() {
           zeroStruct(this);
         }
         unsigned char res[4];
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         unsigned char udsListLength[4];
         udsDescriptor_t udsDescriptors[1];
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       };
       
       /**
        * Block Limits
        */
       class blockLims {
       public:
         blockLims() {
           zeroStruct(this);
         }
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         unsigned char fseq[10];
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         uint64_t begin;
         uint64_t end;
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       };
    }
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    template <size_t n>
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    /**
     * Extract a string from a fixed size array. This function
     * gets rid of zeros in array and stops the extracted string
     * there. In SCSI, the arrays are space padded, so the string
     * should have a size equal to n usually. This function is templated
     * to manage the fixed-size array in the SCSI structures conveniently.
     * @param t array pointer to the char array.
     * @return the extracted string.
     */
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    std::string toString(const char(& t)[n]) {
      std::stringstream r;
      r.write(t, std::find(t, t + n, '\0') - t);
      return r.str();
    }
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    std::string toString(const inquiryData_t &);
    
    template <size_t n>
    std::string hexDump(const unsigned char(& d)[n]) {
      std::stringstream hex;
      hex << std::hex << std::setfill('0');
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      while (pos < (8* (n / 8))) {
        hex << std::setw(4) << pos << " | ";
        for (int i=0; i<8; i++)
          hex << std::setw(2) << ((int) d[pos + i]) << " ";
        hex << "| ";
        for (int i=0; i<8; i++)
          hex << std::setw(0) << d[pos + i];
        hex << std::endl;
        pos += 8;
      }
      if (n % 8) {
        hex << std::setw(4) << pos << " | ";
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          hex << std::setw(2) << ((int) d[pos + i]) << " ";
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        for (size_t i=(n % 8); i<8; i++)
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          hex << "   ";
        hex << "| ";
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          hex << std::setw(0) << d[pos + i];
        hex << std::endl;
      }
      return hex.str();
    }
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} // namespace Structures
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} // namespace SCSI
} // namespace tape
} // namespace castor